Graubard The premature and untimely death of an active and engaged scholar is always tragic. In the case of the late Professor George Armstrong Kelly, the tragedy is compounded by his not having witnessed what so few imagined even possible at the time of his death in December - the sudden and complete collapse of many of the principal Communist regimes of Central and Eastern Europe, and the growth of a new interest in liberal institutions and values. How one wishes that the author of this work had lived to see these events, to comment on them, to place them in a historical frame, to explain why Tocqueville and any number of other nineteenth-century French liberals are again in fashion, not so much with the politicians of our day as with those who are scholars, committed to seeing how the past lives on in the present. George Kelly had many distinctions - not the least being his capacity to "trespass" intellectually on many fields, ignoring many of the conventional disciplinary boundaries, making each of the ones he entered his own, without ever appearing to be aggressive or aggrandizing.
As an Enlightenment thinker, Voltaire advocates the importance of free thinking and scientific reasoning. Although he believes in the existence of God, Voltaire is severely critical of revealed religion as well as of religious optimism and fanaticism. Tartuffe is a critique of religious hypocrisy as embodied in Tartuffe.
He pretends to be extremely pious, but his actions go completely against the moral codes of his religion. In Act 3, Scene 2, when he sees Dorine, Tartuffe tells her: The flesh is weak, And unclean thoughts are difficult to control. Such sights as that can undermine the soul. However, in the next scene, he contradicts what he tells Dorine.
He blatantly seduces Elmire and urges her to betray her husband. Tartuffe is not only a religious hypocrite but also a religious fanatic. Orgon, under the influence of Tartuffe, is also satirized. Last week, his conscience was severely pricked Because, while praying, he had caught a flea And killed it, so he felt, too wrathfully.
They think censoriousness a mark of pride, And therefore, letting others preach and rave, They show, by deeds, how Christians should behave.
Truly pious people do not merely preach, for their actions speak louder than words.
Ironically, those who always boast about and show off their piety are not truly pious. However, unlike Tartuffe, which embodies religious hypocrisy in a single person, Tartuffe, Candide focuses on the religious hypocrisy of entire religious organizations.
Voltaire believes that the religious clergy of the Catholic Church and the Jesuits, in particular, are especially hypocritical. The clergy instruct people to observe a set of rules and moral codes and severely punish those who transgress them.
However, they themselves do not follow these rules and codes. For example, Franciscans and Jesuits are found to have syphilis,2 even though, in accordance with their own rules, they are supposed to remain celibate.
To protect their authority, the clergy persecute anyone who breaks or questions the rules. For example, Pangloss gets hanged because he expresses a philosophy that is different from Catholic doctrine Voltaire The punishment of Pangloss exposes not only the brutality but also the hypocrisy of the Catholic clergy, as Catholicism preaches the importance of compassion.
What Voltaire attempts to show is the double standard of the clergy: In Candide, the examples of religious hypocrisy run on, one after another, as Candide travels around the world. Voltaire is not a mere moralist: He uses concrete examples of what Candide sees and experiences to expose the hypocrisy of the Catholic clergy.
The hypocrisy of the clergy is even more evident when juxtaposed with those who have no affiliation with religious organizations, such as Jacques the Anabaptist.
The characterization of Jacques shows that people who do not belong to mainstream religious groups are, ironically, more moral and kindhearted than those who do.Voltaire is emphasizing the extreme pride and self-importance of the governor.
3. The old woman continues to play an important role in this chapter. What encounter horrifies and convinces Candide to abandon Pangloss’s optimism? Candide and Cacambo meet a black man, who is missing both a hand and a leg.
The black man is a slave in a sugar. The clutter of the Tableau reproduces the confusion of the quotidian in a large city. If the Tableau can be seen as a harbinger of the Revolution, it is because this work exposes the neat distinctions between the first, second, and third estates for the fictions that they were.
Voltaire shows through Pangloss that extreme optimism does not mean there really is something good in everything. Pangloss’ extreme optimistic philosophy became Candide’s primary education.
(“Candide Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - words - 3”, n.d.) Voltaire exposes what has been prevalent in 18th century. An antology of enlightenment's french philosopher Voltaire political writings. by daniel in Types > School Work y voltaire. Extreme law tends to de troy the law (section IS).
Man's salvation and de tiny lay in human hands.
as his unflagging attack on Leib nizian optimism after the earthquake in Lisbon amply demon strates. Candide Essay. Candide Essay In the novel, Candide, Voltaire uses many symbols and motifs to satirize the basic ideas of optimism during the eighteenth century. However, Voltaire was not just able to sway the minds of his contemporaries, but he has also left a lasting impression on the modern world by satirizing tenets that have remained from.
- Voltaire “Candide or Optimism” was written in the enlightenment era. Voltaire story is published in The Norton Anthology of Western Literature. Voltaire’s character, Pangolss, is a philosopher who teaches about God morals. Pangolss is also a mentor to Candide, who is the main character of the novel.