Use the semicolon to link independent clauses not joined by a coordinating conjunction.
Pronominal 1 possessives hers, its, theirs, yours, and ours have no apostrophe.
Indefinite pronouns, however, use the apostrophe to show possession. It was previously conventional to use an apostrophe in expressions of time involving a plural reference […] The apostrophe is now often left out.
Again, the sense of these phrases tends to be more descriptive than possessive. When the time reference is in the singular, however, the apostrophe should be retained to help mark the noun 2 as singular: The expression months pregnant does not take an apostrophe; it is similar to years old.
Plural possessives often put the apostrophe after the s. But when the word is already plural without the addition of an s the apostrophe goes before the s. John Gruber in regards to pluralising iPhone 5: And then how do you pluralize iPhone 4S?
Use apostrophes in the plurals of abbreviations and in plurals formed from letters and figures: Unlike abbreviations, shortened word forms do not take the apostrophe in the plural: Dash Hyphens should never be used in place of an en-dash or em-dash unless using a double hyphen to represent an en-dash or a triple hyphen to represent an em-dash, e.
Em-dashes are so called because they are the width of a capital M: They are the correct punctuation character to use when punctuating prose—like this. En-dashes are so called because they are the width of a capital N: They are most commonly used as a replacement for the word to, for example: Em-dash Parenthetic expressions 3 can use a pair of commas, em-dashes, or brackets.
Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers agrees with me and goes into more detail: The style recommended for the standard dash in Australian government publications is an unspaced em rule; this eliminates any possibility of confusion with the spaced en rule.
The em rule, or dash, has three main uses: Overuse could indicate that there are too many qualifications and a lack of structural clarity. It can introduce an abrupt introduction or a summary, or be used as a less formal substitute for the colon.
The key word to remember when using a dash is informal… …The dash implies a separation more forceful than a comma, and more relaxed that a colon: The cocktail was a thick, foul-smelling concoction—a mix of tequila, ouzo, sour mix, and lime.
The grammatically correct choice is not to use a dash when another form of punctuation will work: Her concerns about my debauchery were well founded. It was not from a public urinal that I caught chlamydia; it was from a common whore.
There are two types of en-dash; spaced and un-spaced.Lewis Thomas was a physician, poet, etymologist, essayist, administrator, educator, policy advisor, and researcher. A graduate of Princeton University and Harvard Medical School, he was the dean of Yale Medical School and New York University School of Medicine, and the president of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Institute.
“Sometimes you get a glimpse of a semicolon coming, a few lines farther on, and it is like climbing a steep path through woods and seeing a wooden bench just at a bend in the road ahead, a place where you can expect to sit for a moment, catching your breath.”. Introduction. I will always stick to British (Australian) spelling, but the rules of punctuation vary more subtly between British- and American-English; I’d like to pluck the most common sense rules from both.
4 quotes from The Medusa and the Snail: More Notes of a Biology Watcher: ‘Worrying is the most natural and spontaneous of all human functions. It is time. Readers will find themselves caught up in the fate of the medusa and the snail as a metaphor for eternal issues of life and death as Lewis Thomas further extends the /5(4).
James Somers is a writer and programmer based in New York.