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The psychological areas that will be discussed are the behaviorist perspective and the psychodynamic perspective.
Each of these areas have differing views. They are thought to discover how to act and behave by certain learning methods. The first of these that will be looked at is classical conditioning. His experiment looked at the salivation of dogs. When food, an unconditional stimulus, was presented to the dog, it would salivate, an unconditional response.
When a bell was rung, a neutral stimulus, there was no response from the dog.
Pavlov then rang the bell with the food when it was presented. After some time he took the food away and rang the bell by itself, a conditional stimulus. Now however, salivation occurred, a conditional response.
The second type of conditioning, operant conditioning, also used animals; this time rats. Skinner was the first person to study it in the s. It is called Operant Conditioning because the child is seen to operate upon the environment to cause an effect. Skinner had a box containing a lever and a food tray; this is known as the Skinner Box.
When the rat pressed the lever, food would be dispensed. Compare and contrast the cognitive behavioural for gaining a food pellet start off very basic but become more difficult and specific, for example at first the rat would have to just go near to the lever to gain food, then touch it and after more time it would have to actually press the lever.
Skinner found that after time the frequency of lever pressing by the rat became higher. One of the major elements of the behavior theory is the idea of reinforcement, which can be used to either increase or reduce the frequency of a behavior.
Positive reinforcement will increase the frequency of a behavior by rewarding it, for example treating a child to some sweets for tidying their bedroom. Negative reinforcement leads to a reduction in the frequency of a behaviour by something unpleasant occurring, for example smacking a child when they have been naughty.
Both types lead to an increase in frequency of the reinforced behavior. However, one must remember the ethical considerations when thinking about conditioning. The small child Albert initially demonstrated no fear of a tame white rat. Watson, though, paired the white rat with a loud bang.
Albert became extremely scared of this and the white rat began to elicit a fear response. After a few times of being subjected to this conditioning similar objects, such as a fur coat, also elicited anxious responses.
This shows that classical conditioning underlies some phobias. Perhaps the main criticism of the behaviorist perspective is that it does not take into consideration of mental processes. Behaviorist concepts have also been combined with more mentalist ideas in cognitive behavioral therapy and the broader cognitive behavioral approach within clinical and health psychology.
Methods of study in this field include biochemical monitoring, looking at chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living organisms; non- anaesthetised brain surgery, enabling doctors to see exactly which part of the brain controls the performing of certain tasks; and PET, CT and MRI scans which enable the viewing of exactly what is happening inside the parts of the body that can otherwise not be seen.
Biological psychologists believe that behavior is determined by genetic, physiological, biochemical and neurological factors. Whilst the entire central nervous system is important in this, the brain plays a crucial role.
Development and changes in personality and behavior are though to be based on genetically determined changes in brain growth. These changes occur through maturation and ageing of the organism. Changes in hormone and neurotransmitter levels also cause psychological changes.Word Count Compare and contrast how the cognitive-behavioural and person-centred models of counselling understand the person, and how these two approaches explain the psychological distress experienced by individuals.
Oct 08, · Cognitive psychology assumes that humans have the capacity to process and organise information in their mind. It is concerned less with visible behaviour and Status: Resolved. Apr 17, · Comparison and Contrast of Behavioral and Cognitive Theories Key concepts/unique attributes Both B.
F. Skinner and Albert Bandura believed behavior is the result of what is learned from experience (Corey, ). In contrast, the differences in the process of change between the Psychodynamic Approach and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in the Psychodynamic Approach the process of change would involve encouraging clients to look into their past with a view to uncovering repressed or significant events and memories and their associated feelings.
natural scenery: Tourists at the resort are surrounded by nature. the universe, with all its phenomena: Conservation of energy is a universal law of nature. the sum total of the forces at work throughout the universe. reality, as distinguished from any effect of art: a portrait true to nature.
the particular combination of qualities belonging to a person, animal, thing, or class by birth. The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the dorsal striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia. While the caudate nucleus has long been associated with motor processes due to its role in Parkinson's disease, [clarification needed] it plays important roles in various other nonmotor functions as well, including procedural learning, associative learning [citation needed.