Bibliography This lack of a standard for pronoun use puts editors in a tough position when they approach a text. Which disciplines accept personal pronoun use and to what extent?
Bibliography Definition Academic writing refers to a style of expression that researchers use to define the intellectual boundaries of their disciplines and their specific areas of expertise.
Characteristics of academic writing include a formal tone, use of the third-person rather than first-person perspective usuallya clear focus on the research problem under investigation, and precise word choice.
Like specialist languages adopted in other professions, such as, law or medicine, academic writing is designed to convey agreed meaning about complex ideas or concepts for a group of scholarly experts.
Colorado Technical College; Hartley, James. Academic Writing and Publishing: Importance of Good Academic Writing The accepted form of academic writing in the social sciences can vary considerable depending on the methodological framework and the intended audience.
However, most college-level research papers require careful attention to the following stylistic elements: The Big Picture Unlike fiction or journalistic writing, the overall structure of academic writing is formal and logical.
It must be cohesive and possess a logically organized flow of ideas; this means that the various parts are connected to form a unified whole. There should be narrative links between sentences and paragraphs so that the reader is able to follow your argument.
The introduction should include a description of how the rest of the paper is organized and all sources are properly cited throughout the paper. The Tone The overall tone refers to the attitude conveyed in a piece of writing.
Throughout your paper, it is important that you present the arguments of others fairly and with an appropriate narrative tone. When presenting a position or argument that you disagree with, describe this argument accurately and without loaded or biased language.
In academic writing, the author is expected to investigate the research problem from an authoritative point of view.
You should, therefore, state the strengths of your arguments confidently, using language that is neutral, not confrontational or dismissive. Diction Diction refers to the choice of words you use. Awareness of the words you use is important because words that have almost the same denotation [dictionary definition] can have very different connotations [implied meanings].
This is particularly true in academic writing because words and terminology can evolve a nuanced meaning that describes a particular idea, concept, or phenomenon derived from the epistemological culture of that discipline [e.
Therefore, use concrete words [not general] that convey a specific meaning. If this cannot be done without confusing the reader, then you need to explain what you mean within the context of how that word or phrase is used within a discipline. The Language The investigation of research problems in the social sciences is often complex and multi- dimensional.
Therefore, it is important that you use unambiguous language. Well-structured paragraphs and clear topic sentences enable a reader to follow your line of thinking without difficulty. Your language should be concise, formal, and express precisely what you want it to mean. Do not use vague expressions that are not specific or precise enough for the reader to derive exact meaning ["they," "we," "people," "the organization," etc.
Punctuation Scholars rely on precise words and language to establish the narrative tone of their work and, therefore, punctuation marks are used very deliberately.
For example, exclamation points are rarely used to express a heightened tone because it can come across as unsophisticated or over-excited. Dashes should be limited to the insertion of an explanatory comment in a sentence, while hyphens should be limited to connecting prefixes to words [e.
Finally, understand that semi-colons represent a pause that is longer than a comma, but shorter than a period in a sentence. In general, there are four grammatical uses of semi-colons: If you are not confident about when to use semi-colons [and most of the time, they are not required for proper punctuation], rewrite using shorter sentences or revise the paragraph.Examples of other academic conventions to follow include the appropriate use of headings and subheadings, properly spelling out acronyms when first used in the text, avoiding slang or colloquial language, avoiding emotive language or unsupported declarative statements, avoiding contractions, and using first person and second person pronouns.
Writing concluding sentences can be optional because if you find that your entire paragraph can do without one, it is definitely all right to end your paragraph without a concluding statement. It is a rule that you must make sure that the paragraph should always maintain and focus on a single idea.
A paragraph is a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic. Learning to write good paragraphs will help you as a writer stay on track during your drafting and revision stages.
Good paragraphing also greatly assists your readers in following a piece of writing. Recently, many academic publications have started accepting the use of the plural pronoun they as a singular pronoun, meaning writers use they to correspond to singular subjects in an effort to avoid gendered pronouns.
Aug 19, · Guidelines for the use personal pronouns (“I”, “we”, “my,”and so forth) in academic writing vary according to discipline, and /5(29). How to avoid using personal language. 1. The passive voice should be used in academic writing when the 'doer' of the action in a sentence is unknown or irrelevant to the discussion.
Personal pronouns are avoided when using the passive voice; focus moves off 'doer' and onto the action.